Since the fourth edition of Counseling Strategies and Interventions, the counseling profession has continued to expand and evolve. An increasing number of training programs have been recognized by various accrediting bodies. For example, professional counseling programs are now accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP); counseling and clinical psychology programs are accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA); marriage and family counseling programs are accredited by the American Association of Marriage and Family Therapists ( AAMFT) ; and social work programs are accredited by the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE). All of these organizations monitor the type, duration, and quality of training that helpers receive throughout their training and educational processes.
In writing this fifth edition, we have kept several well-grounded features from the previous editions. First, we have tried to be comprehensive yet concise. Second, the book has been written with upper-class undergraduates or beginning-level graduate students in mind. Also, we have included a variety of learning exercises to help students apply and review what they have learned.
At the same time, we have made some changes, including deletions and additions. We have eliminated out-of-date material and added content that reflects new sources and new thinking about the field. Many recently published sources are included.
Most importantly, we have expanded the coverage of and the emphasis on diversity and multiculturalism. As Robinson (1997) has so aptly pointed out, the two are not synonymous. Diversity describes the experiences of clients who are different across dimensions such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, economic class, religion, and so on. Multiculturalism is "willingly sharing power with those who have less power" and using "unearned privilege to empower others" (p. 6). Robinson has also explained that it is possible to have diversity without a commitment to multiculturalism. When this occurs, differences can pull people apart rather than bring them together. For example, some people may devalue the differences found in others, as well as consciously or unconsciously "pull rank" on the basis of privilege and power. Other people may use their differences in a fashion that resembles what contextual family therapists have called "destructive entitlement"—meaning that those who have been treated unfairly may feel entitled to certain things in return. When these kinds of experiences occur, someone feels scapegoated as a function of age, gender, race, religion, sexual orientation, and so on, and alienation results. Only when both diversity and multiculturalism are present and apparent are our differences truly valued and esteemed. In this fifth edition, we have attempted to do just that.